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the reasons behind Egypt's return to the dialogue table regarding Ethiopia's dam over the river Nile

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the reasons behind Egypt's return to the dialogue table regarding Ethiopia's dam over the river Nile where privileged Ethiopians used to go to a schooling program, structured in a manner that is comparative to the modern education system, encompassing primary to tertiary education levels. The main departure point between the modern and the traditional church and mosque-based education systems is that while the former promotes critical thinking as well as the production of new knowledge, the latter encourages learning by heart and reciting of scriptures. With the introduction of modern education to the country, which is heavily influenced by the western culture, the country’s education system started to change forever, albeit criticisms of unfiltered adaption of the colonial education system as is in other African countries, although the country did not have any colonial history worth mentioning. The arguments and hypothetical benefits of synchronization the traditional and modern systems of education notwithstanding, some experts are of the view that a unique and more effective system could have been molded if the nation took into account its endogenous stock of knowledge. Since the introduction of a modern education system in the 1940s, Ethiopia saw three different education policies that reflected the change in the ideological inclination of the subsequent governments. The imperial regime crafted a policy with the help of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). After toppling the imperial regime, the Derg took power eventually sweeping off the previously established policy framework, and designed its own education policy with the orientation of scientific socialism. Hence, it introduced Marxism in schools to help deepen the underlining belief. This system was capable of increasing enrollment rates, according to experts, but at lesser quality in contrast to the increase in access to education. Then came the current administration of the Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), which fought to overthrow the military government of the Derg, with its new federal system of government. The EPRDF introduced a new education policy in 1994, three years since taking over from Derg. EPRDF’s Education and Training Policy makes an assessment of the education policy at the time by stating, “To date, it is known that our country's education is entangled with complex problems of relevance, quality, accessibility, and equity. The objectives of education do not take cognizance of the society's needs and do not adequately indicate future direction.” The 1994 Education and Training Policy also describes the aim of education is, “To strengthen the individual's and society's problem-solving capacity, ability and culture starting from basic education and at all levels.” It also asserts that, “The education and training policy envisages bringing-up citizens endowed with humane outlook, countrywide responsibility, and democratic values having developed the necessary productive, creative and appreciative capacity in order to participate fruitfully in development and the utilization of resources and the environment at large.” But, many observe that Ethiopia’s education policy does not lack in appealing documents as well as arguments; rather, the problems is living up to the promises these documents make. Bearing this observation and the relevance of the country’s education system in mind, as well as the changing geopolitical, technological and global trends, policymakers are at it again. The government policy drafters are once again working on a new education development roadmap to be implemented between the years 2018 and 2030. The new roadmap makes assessments of the education sector in terms of primary education, secondary education, teacher training, higher education as well as education financing and governance. According to the diagnosis that is made by the new roadmap document, public investment in the education sector has increased by 70 percent in real terms between 2003/04 and 2011/12 with the sector accounting for 20 percent of government spending.

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